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 Alignment ||
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Alignment, an order preserving matching of the symbols of two or more sequences to optimise some criterion.
Amino acid, the 20 (common) amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
Codon, a triplet of coding DNA bases which corresponds to one amino acid in the protein.
DPA, dynamic programming algorithm, esp. as in sequence alignment.
Eukaryote, a "higher" organism where the cell has a nucleus containing (nuclear) DNA.
Exon, part of a gene which is expressed, that is translated to protein.
Gene, a region of DNA that contains regulatory regions and the DNA that codes for a protein (but alternative splicing, genes within introns etc., cloud this picture).
Genetic code, the mapping of codon->amino acid during translation.
Genome, the DNA complement of an organism, and in eukaryotes usually the nuclear genome.
Hydrophilic, likes water, esp. as a property of some amino acids.
Hydrophobic, dislikes water, esp. as a property of some amino acids.
Information, the information in an event E of probability pr(E) is -log2(pr(E)) bits.
Intron, part of a gene which is translated to mRNA then edited out, i.e., not expressed as protein, but possibly has regulatory functions.
miRNA, micro-RNA, short (40±) pieces of RNA that play a regulatory function in eukaryotes.
Mitochondria, part of a cell to do with creating energy, and having its own (small) genome.
mRNA, messenger RNA.
Phylogenetic tree, evolutionary, family tree, often inferred from DNA and/or protein sequences.
Primary structure (sequence) of protein, a protein's sequence of amino acids.
Prokaryote, a simpler organism without a cell nucleus (see eukaryote).
Secondary structure, "local structures" of proteins, often classified into helix, turn and other.
siRNA, small interfering RNA, see miRNA.
Tertiary structure of protein, the 3-dimensional structure of a folded protein.
Transcription, process in which DNA->mRNA.
Translation, process in which mRNA->protein.
tRNA, transfer RNA, determine the translation process.

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