- Alignment, an order preserving matching of the symbols of two or more sequences to optimise some criterion.
- Amino acid, the 20 (common) amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
- Codon, a triplet of coding DNA bases which corresponds to one amino acid in the protein.
- DPA, dynamic programming algorithm, esp. as in sequence alignment.
- Eukaryote, a "higher" organism where the cell has a nucleus containing (nuclear) DNA.
- Exon, part of a gene which is expressed, that is translated to protein.
- Gene, a region of DNA that contains regulatory regions and the DNA that codes for a protein (but alternative splicing, genes within introns etc., cloud this picture).
- Genetic code, the mapping of codon->amino acid during translation.
- Genome, the DNA complement of an organism, and in eukaryotes usually the nuclear genome.
- Hydrophilic, likes water, esp. as a property of some amino acids.
- Hydrophobic, dislikes water, esp. as a property of some amino acids.
- Information, the information in an event E of probability pr(E) is -log2(pr(E)) bits.
- Intron, part of a gene which is translated to mRNA then edited out, i.e., not expressed as protein, but possibly has regulatory functions.
- miRNA, micro-RNA, short (40±) pieces of RNA that play a regulatory function in eukaryotes.
- Mitochondria, part of a cell to do with creating energy, and having its own (small) genome.
- mRNA, messenger RNA.
- Phylogenetic tree, evolutionary, family tree, often inferred from DNA and/or protein sequences.
- Primary structure (sequence) of protein, a protein's sequence of amino acids.
- Prokaryote, a simpler organism without a cell nucleus (see eukaryote).
- Secondary structure, "local structures" of proteins, often classified into helix, turn and other.
- siRNA, small interfering RNA, see miRNA.
- Tertiary structure of protein, the 3-dimensional structure of a folded protein.
- Transcription, process in which DNA->mRNA.
- Translation, process in which mRNA->protein.
- tRNA, transfer RNA, determine the translation process.